Major trauma examples

Examples of major trauma include serious injuries to the head, the spine or the chest, injuries that cause someone to lose a lot of blood, and complicated breaks to the bones called complex fractures (such as a broken pelvis or a broken bone that is sticking out through the skin) Below I list, and briefly describe, twelve traumatic experiences that may befall us in childhood (although they are in no particular order) : 1) The death of a person to whom the child has a strong emotional bond, especially a parent. 2) Divorce of parents, especially when the divorce is acrimonious Trauma Types. When a child feels intensely threatened by an event he or she is involved in or witnesses, we call that event a trauma. There is a range of traumatic events or trauma types to which children and adolescents can be exposed Types of Traumatic Experiences. The National Traumatic Stress Network has strived to provide definitions of types of traumatic events; differentiating them from one another based on the event, who is involved, and the interpretation of law

Major trauma - NIC

Twelve Examples Of Traumatic Childhood Experience

  1. They can be referred to as big T trauma, shock or acute trauma. A condition related to big T trauma or Type 1 trauma is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Examples of type 1 trauma might include: Severe illness or injur
  2. Examples of events and situations that can lead to the development of psychological trauma may include: Natural disasters such as fires, earthquakes, tornados, and hurricanes Interpersonal violence like rape, child abuse, or the suicide of a loved one or frien
  3. Catastrophic trauma----adverse life experiences----ordinary stress. Francine Shapiro, Ph.D. is the creator of a highly effective trauma treatment called eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Dr. Shapiro (1997) introduced the concept of Large-T trauma and small-t trauma
  4. Psychological trauma is a response to an event that a person finds highly stressful. Examples include being in a war zone, a natural disaster, or an accident. Trauma can cause a wide range of..
  5. Historical trauma is multigenerational trauma experienced by a specific cultural, racial or ethnic group. It is related to major events that oppressed a particular group of people because of their status as oppressed, such as slavery, the Holocaust, forced migration, and the violent colonization of Native Americans
  6. Major trauma services - final scope 3 of 8 d) There is no systematic approach to care throughout these 3 overlapping phases and there is a lack of involvement of senior healthcare professionals, particularly in teams receiving patients with major trauma. Major trauma is most likely to occur at night an
  7. Major trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death. There are many causes of major trauma, blunt and penetrating, including falls, motor vehicle collisions, stabbing wounds, and gunshot wounds.Depending on the severity of injury, quickness of management, and transportation to an appropriate medical facility (called a trauma center) may be necessary to.

Trauma Types The National Child Traumatic Stress Networ

Major trauma describes serious and often multiple injuries where there is a strong possibility of death or disability. These might include serious head, chest, abdominal and skeletal injuries sustained as a result of accidents, sport or violence Traumatic injuries are the result of a wide variety of blunt, penetrating and burn mechanisms. They include motor vehicle collisions, sports injuries, falls, natural disasters and a multitude of other physical injuries which can occur at home, on the street, or while at work and require immediate care Types of trauma The Ten Trauma Items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study example, children and their families may become anxious, irritable, or on edge. They may have unwanted thoughts or nightmares about the illness, injury, or the hospital. Some people may avoid going to the doctor or the hospital, or lose interest in being.

Major Multiple Trauma Major Multiple Trauma includes trauma cases with involvement of multiple systems or sites. 14.1 - Brain + Spinal Cord Examples: Old and New Impairments If the patient has functional deficits due to an old impairment, and is now admitted with th Objective: To identify the optimal hospital strategy for assessing chest trauma (tension pneumothorax, haemothorax, cardiac tamponade, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, flail chest and aortic injury) in children, young people and adults who have suffered a major trauma, in hospital A major trauma network is a group of hospitals, emergency services and rehabilitation services that work together to make sure a patient receives the best care for life-threatening or life-changing injuries. There are 26 major trauma networks across England, serving (on average) more than 2 million people Nancy described herself as being trapped by her relationships. Her intake interview confirmed symptoms of major depressive disorder and the clinician recommended cognitive-behavioral therapy. Persons, J.B., Davidson, J. & Tompkins, M.A. (2001). A Case Example: Nancy

4. penetrating trauma: causes injury by objects that pierce and penetrate the surface of the body and cause damage to soft tissues, internal organs, and body cavities. ️BLUNT TRAUMA: 1. motor vehicle crashes and falls are most common MOI's. 2. be alert to skin discoloration and pain. may be only signs of blunt trauma - other common causes in trauma cases are crush injuries, contusions, gunshot wounds • Incidence of ACS is ~ 1 to 9% in tibial shaft fractures (most common) • Found in both open & closed tibial shaft fractures (Duckworth & McQueen , 2011) ACS is an Orthopedic Emergency ALL patients with tibial shaft fractures.

MAJOR TRAUMA. When feasible, patients who have experienced major trauma should be transported to a hospital that has the resources to perform a timely trauma evaluation. 3. Becaus Racial Trauma. Racial trauma, or race-based traumatic stress (RBTS), refers to the mental and emotional injury caused by encounters with racial bias and ethnic discrimination, racism, and hate crimes [1]. Any individual that has experienced an emotionally painful, sudden, and uncontrollable racist encounter is at risk of suffering from a race. Under-triage, whereby we incorrectly send a patient with major trauma (defined as injury severity score > 15) to a Trauma Unit (TU), can result in increased morbidity and mortality. However, over-triage, whereby we incorrectly send a patient without major trauma to an Major Trauma Centre (MTC) results in over-crowding and wasted resources

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event. Most people who go through traumatic events may have temporary difficulty. Results. The data shows that traumatic experiences in childhood is very common (Arnekrans et al. , 2018). About 73. 4% of this sample experienced at least one traumatic experience, and 48. 6% lived through more than one experience. The data also shows that those who reported a trauma rated the experience moderate to a significant negative impact In this environment, a highly-skilled professional trauma team is ready to provide immediate life-saving procedures in state-of-the-art trauma bays. Research shows that getting to the right place at the right time, commonly known as the Golden Hour or first 60 minutes after the occurrence of a major multi-system trauma, is critical

Types of Traumatic Experiences - ECMH

What Are the 3 Main Types of Trauma? - Psylega

Trauma is a specific type of stress that reflects exposure to emotionally distressing events that can result in anxiety disorders like PTSD. Stress is something we all face. It comes in many forms and differs across contexts, from work-related or financial stress, to social problems, to new life changes, to internal experiences. Some stressors. Major Trauma in Older People (ISS>15) Injury mechanism by age band Figure 5: Mechanism of Injury of ISS> 15 patients by age (Appendix 2, Table 5) Mechanism of injury changes with age. Low falls become a much more common cause of major trauma. A fall of <2m is no Patients' trauma burdens are a combination of anatomic damage, physiologic derangement, and the resultant depletion of reserve. Typically, Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15 defines major anatomic injury and Revised Trauma Score (RTS) <7.84 defines major physiologic derangement, but there is no standard definition for reserve The DRG code range for Multiple Significant Trauma is 955-965 The disorder is characterized by three main types of symptoms: Re-experiencing the trauma through intrusive distressing recollections of the event, flashbacks, and nightmares. Emotional numbness and avoidance of places, people, and activities that are reminders of the trauma. Increased arousal such as difficulty sleeping and concentrating.

The effects of childhood trauma vary greatly, depending on the type and severity of the traumatic experience. Examples of these effects include: Severe anxiety. Self-injury. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Phobias. Depression. Drug Abuse typically requiring the help of a drug rehab facility. Insomnia Adult Care - Chapter 14 - General Emergencies and Major Trauma. (PDF Version - 438 K) First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNHIB) Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nurses in Primary Care. The content of this chapter was revised in October 2011 Vascular Trauma Symptoms and Diagnosis. Any kind of bleeding — whether inside or outside the body — is a sign of vascular trauma.. If you've crushed a vein or artery, you may feel pain or pressure, and see or feel a lump or bruise type of trauma (e.g. sexual trauma vs natural disaster) Overall, it appears that the higher the chronicity and intensity of the trauma, the more personal it is (e.g. natural disaster vs interpersonal violence), the more stressors and fewer support systems/resources the person has, the more likely they are to develop PTSD

Traumatic Events: Causes, Effects, and Managemen

Retrospective trauma scores are often used to categorise trauma, however, they have little utility in the prehospital or hyper-acute setting and do not define major trauma to non-specialists. This study employed a Delphi process in order to gauge degrees of consensus/disagreement amongst expert panel members to define major trauma. A two round modified Delphi technique was used to explore. Background: Major trauma care is complex and requires individuals and teams to perform together in time critical, high-stakes situations. Scenario-based simulation is well established as a strategy for trauma teamwork improvement, but its role in the relational and cultural aspects of trauma care is less well understood

21 Common Reactions to Trauma Psychology Toda

A major trauma centre (MTC), which will treat the most seriously injured patients in the North of Scotland, has opened in Aberdeen. The facility at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary is the first of four major trauma centres due to open as part of Scotland's Trauma Network. The network will ensure that those seriously injured get the best possible care. Trauma. Trauma in the medical sense means any injury to human tissues and organs caused by an external force. Trauma includes all injuries caused by an external force, from minor (cuts and bruises) to critical (major brain or spinal injuries). Trauma is usually categorised as blunt or penetrating

Infants and young children with brain injuries might not be able to communicate headaches, sensory problems, confusion and similar symptoms. In a child with traumatic brain injury, you may observe: Change in eating or nursing habits. Unusual or easy irritability. Persistent crying and inability to be consoled Chest trauma can be penetrating or blunt. If the injury pokes through the skin (stabbing, gunshot wound, an arrow through the heart, etc.) we call it penetrating chest trauma. If a sharp object tearing deep into skin and muscle isn't the main cause of tissue damage, consider it blunt chest trauma. Some blunt forces can still break the skin. Severe traumatic injury continues to present challenges to healthcare systems around the world, and post-traumatic bleeding remains a leading cause of potentially preventable death among injured patients. Now in its fifth edition, this document aims to provide guidance on the management of major bleeding and coagulopathy following traumatic injury and encourages adaptation of the guiding.

Race and ethnicity, poverty status, and gender affect children's risk of exposure to trauma. For example, significantly more boys than girls are exposed to traumatic events in the context of community violence, and serious injury disproportionately affects boys, youths living in poverty, and Native American youths In the UK major trauma is the leading cause of death in those under 40 years old [1]. In children, mortality from injury is greater than childhood mortality from all other causes combined [2]. Major trauma is, however, a minor element of emergency department work equating to less than 0.2 per cent of total activity [3] Majority of deaths from trauma result from head injury Major Trauma Centres (MTCs) are an important component of Trauma systems and 'are tasked with the management of the most severely injured patients' (i.e. those with an injury severity score of greater than 15). 1 These patients have the highest mortality rate amongst all trauma patients, accounting for 75% of trauma deaths in Ireland.

Different Types of Trauma: Small 't' versus Large 'T

Introduction: This paper is a short series description of our experience with five cases managed surgically for orthopaedic trauma and who suffered meanwhile an acute coronary event. Materials and methods: Five polytrauma, multiply fractured patients were treated in our institution for various lesions, including an open femur and knee articular fractures, major fractures around the pelvis and. Kathleen Brown-Rice. The theory of historical trauma was developed to explain the current problems facing many Native Americans. This theory purports that some Native Americans are experiencing historical loss symptoms (e.g., depression, substance dependence, diabetes, dysfunctional parenting, unemployment) as a result of the cross-generational transmission of trauma from historical losses (e. 5 Pan South Adult Major Trauma ODN Escalation Framework FINAL V3.1 24/11/2020 4.1. Appendix 2 defines the communication flow and associated actions for Trauma Units (TU), Major Trauma Centre (MTC) Operational Delivery Network (ODN) Managers, Clinical Commissionin Background and Introduction. Trauma is a major contributor to the world's burden of disability, and responsible for the loss of more Disability-Adjusted Life Years than any other disorder .Injury can result in long-standing adverse effects on patients' overall health and quality of life .Understanding the full extent of the impact of trauma on an individual's health has the potential to direct. The five major types of anxiety disorders are: Generalized Anxiety Disorder, GAD, is an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic anxiety, exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, OCD, is an anxiety disorder and is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions.

Major trauma is a common cause of mortality and morbidity and remains the most common cause of death in the population under the age of 40. Major trauma usually results in a life-changing injury that can affect either a single system, such as an isolated severe head injury, or involve multiple-system trauma However, this is a perfect example of how some types of trauma aren't clear-cut. A dog's jaw can crush Bob's tissues, and it can shear (tear) them apart as well. Other examples of penetrating. The cervical spine will generally be cleared after transfer to a major trauma service and specialist assessment. Top of page. Chest The chest should be palpated for rib tenderness and subcutaneous emphysema. The entire thorax must be palpated including the supraclavicular fossae, right and left ribs and both axillae. A hand can be slid. 10 Different Types of Trauma. To help readers understand the various kinds of trauma and how they might be recognized, each has been outlined below. 1. Sexual Abuse or Assault. Any unsolicited or unwelcome attention or conduct of a sexual nature falls under the category of sexual abuse or sexual assault. Such behaviors include, but are not. Trauma is an subjective experience, so while one event may be easy for one person to cope with, it can be very traumatic for another. Examples of trauma include abuse, neglect, witnessing violence, losing a loved one, a car accident, or sexual assault. The DSM-5 includes criteria for five distinct trauma- and stressor-related disorders

Ongoing trauma, or unresolved symptoms related to trauma, can affect your mental and physical health. The major symptoms of single incident trauma include flashbacks, avoiding thinking about the trauma, avoiding reminders of the trauma, physical and emotional numbness, and constantly looking out for danger example, extreme emotional abuse, major losses or separations, degradation or humiliation, and coerced (but not physically threatened or forced) sexual experiences—it undoubtedly underestimates the extent of actual trauma i Case Examples. We would like to periodically offer some case examples to illustrate the challenges that children who have experienced complex trauma might present with. CTR is actively providing consultation and case support to with children and youth ranging from age 4 to age 17 major trauma care in the UK. Over this time, major trauma networks around the globe and military conflicts have considerably strengthened the evidence base. Technology has also improved to assist the pre-hospital management of major trauma patients, particularly haemostatic agents, ways to gain intra-osseous access and pelvic stabilisation

Free Brochures. Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Disasters and Other Traumatic Events: What Parents, Rescue Workers, and the Community Can Do: This brochure describes common reactions to trauma and what parents, rescue workers, and the community can do to help children and adolescents cope with disasters and other traumatic events. Also available en español 1.3 The Major Trauma Network Measures All services self-assessed against a set of defined measures based on the National Service Specification for Major Trauma (NHS England D15/S/a 2014) and the NHS clinical advisory group report on Major Trauma Workforce (CFWI March 2011). The measures covered the whol trauma, describe the guiding principles for non-major trauma management, and identify key objectives, priorities and strategies for each of the following key elements in the spectrum of injury control: surveillance and research, prevention, communit List of College Majors. Below is a list of over 1,800 college majors profiled on MyMajors. Search for majors by selecting a category and refining your search or use search box below Trauma triage. Trauma triage is the use of trauma assessment for prioritising of patients for treatment or transport according to their severity of injury. Primary triage is carried out at the scene of an accident and secondary triage at the casualty clearing station at the site of a major incident

Trauma courses and orientation programmes at major trauma centres (MTCs) and trauma units (TUs) should include the principles of assessing and managing elderly injured patients. This report updates the original pan London elderly trauma guidance first published in February 2017 2.2. Major Trauma Centre (MTC): Manages all types of trauma but specifically have the lead for managing major trauma patients, providing consultant-level care and access to tertiary and specialised level services. Within the Trauma Network the MTC: • Is optimised for the definitive care of injured patients An example of cultural trauma is that experienced by current generations or peoples of Germany whose Nazi ancestors perpetrated heinous and deplorable acts of violence against the Jews. Some of the causes of cultural trauma include but are not limited to racism and apartheid, colonialism, and political and economic discrimination

Major trauma - Burns - RCEMLearning

  1. Treatment Plan Overviews Anger. Part of our behavioral health resources, this is a broad overview of our treatment plan for the treatment of anger (see our Stress and Trauma page). Age- and gender-specific resources are available for adults and juveniles (males and females). For more information, feel free to contact us or fill out our phone consultation form
  2. Patients with major trauma are those with serious, multiple injuries that require 24/7 emergency access to a wide range of clinical services and expertise. For example, doctors may be required to attend to a patient with head and neck injuries, chest, pelvis and other bone fractures. Major traumas can happen as a result of many mechanisms such.
  3. gs. University of Alberta. Download full-text PDF Read full-text
  4. • Obvious major vascular injury (active arterial hemorrhage, expanding hematoma) • All pediatric trauma patients age less than 5 years requiring intubation in the field or ED • Any trauma patient requiring blood product transfusion to maintain vital signs • Mass casualty: more than three major trauma patients expected simultaneousl
PPT - Pediatric Head Trauma PowerPoint Presentation, free

Auto accident may result in minor or major injuries to driver and passenger. Severity of injuries in many cases is not interconnected to obvious damage of the car. Injuries such as profuse external bleeding, abdominal trauma, internal bleeding, head injury, neck injury and compound fracture are considered serious injuries FULL STORY. A study by psychologists at the University of Liverpool has found that traumatic life events are the biggest cause of anxiety and depression, but how a person thinks about these events.

Trauma and Abuse including Type 1 and Type 2 (often cause

  1. The word trauma may be used in two different contexts. In the physical context, it means a physical injury inflicted on a person by some external agent. In a psychological context, the term trauma means an emotional response to a deeply distressing or disturbing event. The event may be the sudden loss of a loved one, an accident, rape, or natural disaster
  2. Examples of common reactions to trauma are: Avoid making major decisions or big life changes until you feel better. Gradually confront what has happened - don't try to block it out. Don't bottle up your feelings - talk to someone who can support and understand you
  3. The ISS is commonly used to define major trauma (MT) using an ISS ≥ 16. This threshold was adopted following evaluation of mortality rates in the North American Major Trauma Outcome Study in the 1980s [13, 14]. However, in recent years focus on outcome measures in trauma care has shifted from fatal to nonfatal outcomes [15,16,17,18]
  4. Trauma is the injuries suffered when a person experiences a blunt force or a penetrating trauma. 1 You may also hear trauma referred to as major trauma. Many trauma patients are the victims of car crashes, stabbings, and gunshot wounds. Trauma can also be caused by falls, crush type injuries, and pedestrians being struck by a car. 1 
  5. Physical trauma can greatly affect your memory, especially if brain damage occurs as a result of the injury. Physical trauma such as a head injury or stroke can damage the brain and impair a person's ability to process information and store information, the main functions of memory. Another form of brain damage that directly affects memory is.

Blunt Force Trauma: Definition, Symptoms & Examples

As trauma care has evolved, intensive, nonoperative care has been used more frequently to manage many trauma patients. Consequently, coding for the care of trauma patients is now a more complicated process because it involves knowing not only the major surgical procedure codes, but also how to use evaluation and management (E/M) codes effectively The main causes of major trauma include: road traffic or transport related accidents. low and high falls. being struck by an object or person (for example, an assault) self-harm. burns. horse related injuries (for example, falling from a horse) Psychodynamic Perspective Examples. Explore a few different examples of the psychodynamic perspective and their explanations to better understand this point of view. Obsessive hand washing could be linked to a trauma in childhood that now causes this behavior. Nail-biting may be caused by an anxiety-inducing childhood event

Teen Depression; Society&#39;s Downfall by nrmra1129

Types Of Trauma The Trauma Practic

  1. The major symptoms of PTSD are destruction from present activities by the initial activities, anxiety and fear while recalling initial experiences. As a result, the major effects of PTSD include: poor family relations and dependency on care. However, it is vivid that there are various interventions that have proved to be effective in treating.
  2. In England, regional trauma networks have existed since 2012—these constitute major (Level 3) trauma centres (MTCs), where all tertiary referral trauma specialties are represented, and local (Level 2) trauma units (TU), with some major trauma capabilities
  3. Free Trauma Essay Sample. The diverse nature of people allows people to react differently to different situations. The same theory is applicable when it comes to trauma. This is the condition suffered by an individual after they have experienced a tragic event and the body goes into shock. Since the traumatic events may be different, it is the.
  4. Mission. To establish and promote a system of emergency medical and trauma care services. Such a system provides timely and appropriate delivery of emergency medical treatment for people with acute illness and traumatic injury, and recognizes the changing methods and environment for providing optimal emergency care throughout Washington

Signs & Symptoms of Psychological & Emotional Trauma

Major trauma involves complex injuries that have the potential to be life-changing or life-ending , he said. On average, about 1,600 patients in Ireland suffer major trauma injuries each. What is a traumatic injury? A traumatic injury is a physical injury which occurs suddenly, with a certain degree of severity. These types of injury typically require immediate medical attention and may first be dealt with in A&E, with later referral to a particular specialist if ongoing treatment is needed or rehabilitation is necessary.Major trauma has the potential to be severe, causing. Major trauma care in England Current services for people who suffer major trauma are not good enough. There is unacceptable variation, which means that if you are unlucky enough to have an accident at night or at the weekend, in many areas you are likely to receive worse quality of care and are more likely to die Increased Trauma . First, people with depression are more likely to have traumatic experiences than people without depression, which, in turn, may increase the likelihood that PTSD develops. A history of trauma and abuse is also a risk factor for depression, and those same traumatic experiences may also play a role in the onset of PTSD

Complex post-traumatic stress disorder can develop when a person has experienced prolonged or repeated trauma. It can cause additional symptoms, as well as those of post-traumatic stress disorder. Major trauma is an important worldwide public-health problem in young individuals, with in-hospital case fatality rates in the past few decades declining to about 20%. 33 Combining mortality and morbidity in the DALY method potentially improves the evaluation of trauma care. Both the YLL for those dying after arrival at the hospital and the YLD. However, hemorrhage should be excluded in all patients who have shock after major trauma, regardless of whether a chest injury that could cause shock is identified. A simple, rapid assessment for chest injuries in patients with shock during the primary surve

Exhibit 1.4-5 is an example of a screening instrument for trauma symptoms, the Primary Care PTSD (PC-PTSD) Screen. Current research (Prins et al., 2004) suggests that the optimal cutoff score for the PC-PTSD is 3. If sensitivity is of greater concern than efficiency, a cutoff score of 2 is recommended Major haemorrhage caused by trauma may cause death very rapidly and control of haemorrhage should take precedence over other interventions. This is particularly relevant to penetrating injuries, such as gunshot wounds to the extremities. The above steps should be followed in order Examples legal issues: Example: patient with right-sided Paralysis presents from nursing home with multiple bruising and skin tears to left side of body: This would involve abuse form, notification of house administrator MVC/Trauma patients: police involvement, community resource involvement, coroners case, legal evidence collection

A major trauma network covering south Wales will be operational by September, the Welsh Government has announced. The network, which has been many years in the making, will change where some. There is a large consensus indicating that childhood trauma is significantly involved in the development of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of retrospectively recalled childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients and to investigate a more specific relationship between trauma type and depression. We further asked for the influence of multiple experiences of. We identified pediatric major trauma volume as the number of cases recorded in the NTDB, for a given hospital, where the patient was 18 years or younger and had an ISS score greater than or equal to 15 . Similarly, we calculated adult major trauma volume by only considering NTDB admissions older than 18 years with ISS score of at least 15

What are Adverse Life Experiences? - Post-Traumatic Stress

It is important to consider the pattern of bruising and whether it is consistent with the history of trauma. Otherwise, it may raise the possibility of non-accidental injury. For example, multiple small rounded bruises occurring on the inner aspect of the upper arms are suggestive of the child being gripped by a hand in this area On call and physician scheduling software for group practices, residents, hospitalists and other medical providers for call, clinic, rotation and shift schedules. OnCall Enterprise is a hospital-wide system for scheduling doctors and paging doctors on call. EasyPlot is for scientific plotting and data analysis 1. Background. The trauma nurse coordinator (TNC) role has existed in England since the 1990s, but was introduced across the country in conjunction with the introduction of nationwide regional trauma systems in 2012 (Department of Health, 2012, Vondy, Willett, 2011).TNCs are essential to a successful trauma service (Curtis and Leonard, 2012).Trauma care encompasses a wide variety of nursing.

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