Baby unsettled after tongue tie release

Caring For Your Baby After Tongue Tie Separation

Immediately after the tongue tie separation, a white diamond-shaped patch might form underneath the tongue (or yellow if the baby is jaundiced). This is normal and should gradually disappear, and be gone in 1-2 weeks. Feeding after tongue tie revisio It indicates reflux....but as you say, the 'reflux' is actually BECAUSE of the tongue tie. So many people (and babies!) are tongue tied and don't realise it...hence why so many parents blame reflux and start shoving medicine down their baby, rather than looking at the root cause of their babies discomfort

After tongue tie snip?? - Netmum

  1. It is normal for your baby to be unsettled for 1-2 days following Tongue-tie can prevent your baby from opening its mouth wide and taking a big procedure to release tongue-tie. The decision to have the procedure is yours. How is tongue-tie treated
  2. What to Expect After Tongue Tie Release (Frenulotomy) Published by Charlie IBCLC on October 11, 2016 After tongue tie treatment some babies resolve instantly and spontaneously. We often hear about these cases online and it can be easy to think that if this doesn't happen, it hasn't worked
  3. e was unsettled for the next 12 hours after the snip. Unsettled included from time to time struggling like this and it was horrible but it's to do with the swelling, and everything feeling wrong for her..
  4. Tongue tie symptoms include: Baby not being able to lift their tongue to reach their upper gum. Baby struggling to move their tongue from side to side. Baby not being able to stick their tongue out past their lower gum or poke their tongue out past their lips

The maternal experience of breastfeeding a tongue-tied baby may include: Pain. Nipple damage, bleeding, blanching or distortion of the nipples. Mastitis, nipple thrush or blocked ducts. Severe pain with latch or losing latch. Sleep deprivation caused by the baby being unsettled. Depression or a sense of failure Hi, i thought my daughter had a tongue tie but it wasnt the classic one like my son has. Ie the same as the group profile picture is was more in the middle and just stopped her tongue poking out. Well i had no idea they would just snip it as i wasnt sure how it could be don Pain Management After Tongue And Lip Tie Surgery Before The Procedure. Chiropractic and/or CranioSacral Therapy - Because the mobility of the tongue has been compromised, tongue tied children may experience whole body tension. It makes sense if you think about it - if for some reason you had to clench your teeth for an extended period of time you'd soon be feeling tension in your neck. Babies are often unsettled in the first day or two after a tongue-tie division and might need more cuddles and nurturing. After the procedure, you'll probably see a white patch under your baby's tongue; this takes 24 to 48 hours to heal but it won't bother your baby Baby: Restricted tongue movement. Small gape resulting in biting/grinding behaviour. Unsettled behaviour during feeds. Difficulty staying attached to the breast or bottle. Frequent or very long feeds. Excessive early weight loss/ poor weight gain/faltering growth. Clicking noises and/ or dribbling during feeds. Colic, wind, hiccoughs

The two main concerns of tongue tie are the impact on breastfeeding and potential speech problems. While a baby with tongue tie can generally feed successfully, what often occurs is a poor latch which can lead to low weight gain, nipple damage, mastitis (due to breast not draining) and baby being unsettled Most babies are unsettled for several days after the procedure, The upper lip will swell slightly for 24 to 48 hours. Babies may be difficult to feed for several days as moving the upper lip and tongue may be uncomfortable for baby

Tongue-tie (also known as ankyloglossia) is the name given to the piece of skin between a baby's underside of tongue with the floor of the mouth. This piece of skin can restrict the movement of the tongue, and may lead to difficulties for the breastfeeding baby When a baby's frenulum is short or tight it can stop their tongue from moving properly. This is called a tongue-tie (also called ankyloglossia). Around 5 to 10 percent of babies are born with a tongue-tie, but at least half of these babies can still breastfeed normally Babies should have had vitamin K at birth (or at least 2 oral doses) before the tongue-tie release is considered. Some babies may be unhappy at being held still and having fingers placed in their mouth. A breastfeed immediately afterward will comfort the baby and allows further assessment of breastfeeding Tongue-tie release is a very simple procedure, particularly in babies under six months of age. The procedure only takes a few seconds and does not require an anaesthetic (medicines used to numb sensation in certain areas of the body or induce sleep). Babies are likely to cry immediately after the procedure, although the majority of babies cry for less than a minute Tongue‑Tie Release (Frenotomy): What to Expect What is a tongue‑tie? Your baby has a tongue‑tie (also called tight frenulum or ankyloglossia). The frenulum is the small band of tissue under the tongue. When a baby is tongue‑tied, the frenulum extends out to the tip of the tongue (or near the tip)

What to Expect After Tongue Tie Release (Frenulotomy

Tongue-Tie (Ankyloglossia) What to Expect After Tongue Tie Release (Frenulotomy) After tongue tie treatment some babies resolve instantly and spontaneously. We often hear about these cases online and it can be easy to think that if this doesn't happen, it hasn't worked. Toning Suckling and Read mor The tongue also can't sit on the roof of the mouth in a natural resting position at all. Grade 2 - the tie is attached a little further down the underside of the tongue but many of the symptoms are the same as Grade 1. Grade 3 - these ties are closer to the base of the tongue. Grade 4 - These are posterior ties, also known as submucosal. After a baby has settled 2 fingers or a tongue retractor are placed under the tongue and the tongue pushed up and back to demonstrate the tongue tie and a Diode laser is used to release the tongue tie. If the baby can be held still the procedure should only take several minutes.The baby is immediately handed back to the mother for feeding and.

There is a myth that tongue-tie only causes feeding difficulties for breastfed babies. However, bottle-fed babies can suffer with similar symptoms to those listed above. When to suspect your baby has a tongue-tie which is affecting feeding In some babies a tongue-tie will be obvious. The tongue may be heart-shaped or forked. It may no Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is where the strip of skin connecting the baby's tongue to the bottom of their mouth is shorter than usual. Credit: Some babies who have tongue-tie do not seem to be bothered by it. In others, it can restrict the tongue's movement, making it harder to breastfeed. Tongue-tie is sometimes diagnosed during a baby's. After a tongue tie has been divided, a baby might need help to improve the forward and side to side movement of their tongue. Stick your tongue out for your baby to copy. Stimulate the area above your baby's top lip to encourage them to open the mouth. When the mouth opens place your fingertip on the centre of the outside of the lower gum ridge Stretches after tongue tie release/revision. August 3, 2021 August 3, 2021 - Julie Matheney. Do I need to do stretches on my baby's tongue after a tongue tie release? There are many conflicting answers, and it seems like every dental or ENT practice has a different answer, which gets really confusing for parents..

Complications from tongue-tie procedures are thought to be low, though it is not well reported nor studied. Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe a case of a sublingual mucocele after laser frenotomy in a neonate with tongue-tie and to investigate major complications reported after tongue-tie release in pediatric patients through a. Tongue and lip-tied babies often adapt to cope with their restricted function and these adaptations can continue to cause sucking issues even after the tie is released. Gentle bodywork can help your baby to release these adaptations and learn to suck effectively After a tongue-tie release: Babies generally cry as soon as they are restrained and crying continues for varying amounts of time after the procedure is complete. Some babies are fussier than others and some may refuse the breast for a few hours after the release and, in these cases, a dose may be helpful If a tongue tie is suspected and you are having problems breastfeeding you will be invited to attend one of the Specialist reastfeeding groups for a feeding assessment. The breastfeeding specialist will assess whether your baby may benefit from a procedure to release tongue-tie and will refer to the relevant department if you agree Guppy after posterior Tongue Tie Release: Tummy Time Guppy. A form of reverse tummy time - it helps with chin and neck extension. Most babies love it, and it's especially great after a tongue-tie release procedure. In this video, it's shown with the baby on a lap

It Takes a Team to Improve Breastfeeding after a Tongue-Tie Procedure. by Bobby Ghaheri. All too often, patients come to me after a diagnosis of tongue-tie (or lip-tie) has been made, thinking that a procedure is going to suddenly change the way their child breastfeeds. Rarely, especially in the very young child (<2 weeks of age), that is possible The old cliché is that a baby's bones are like clay - they're easily molded and manipulated. Babies also can't do the exercises I prescribe before and after a tongue-tie release like older children and adults can. In my experience, I've found that craniosacral therapy is an excellent complimentary modality for babies..

After a short while, turn your finger around and gently press down on the tongue and massage it. A follow-up with your lactation consultant can also help ensure your baby is able to nurse comfortably. If your baby needs tongue tie revision in or around Columbia, SC, please call (803) 781-9090 or email us for an appointment at Smile Columbia. A. What is Tongue Tie Release? Tongue tie is a relatively common finding affecting up to about 10% of newborns. There is much interest in the potential impact that a tongue tie may have on a baby's feeding and there appears to be a recent trend for early treatment. A tongue tie is a membrane/band of tissue that extends from the undersurface. The first step in getting your baby back to breastfeeding is naturally to get a tongue tie revision. If your baby's tongue tie is affecting breastfeeding, there is no way you can power through it, you have to get the tongue tie revised. If the tongue tie has been revised, you are now ready to wean your baby back to the breast

A 2019 study from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary looked at 115 babies referred for tongue-tie surgery and found that 63% ended up not needing the procedure. Another recent study found short-term reduction in breast pain, but inconsistent positive effects on breastfeeding. If your baby is having difficulty latching, staying attached to. With tongue-tie and feeding issues, timing is everything. The earlier we detect feeding issues, the easier it will be to correct them. If the baby cannot latch, even with the support of a lactation consultant, and the baby has a severe tongue-tie, we may recommend frenotomy before the baby leaves the hospital An appointment for tongue-tie correction should not be booked until the results from this blood test are available. What if my baby is older than three months? If your baby is older than three months, please contact your baby's GP. They can refer your baby for tongue-tie correction at an appropriate hospital, after two feeding assessments Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) occurs when the band of tissue (frenulum) that connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth is short, tight, or thick, resulting in restricted movement of the tongue. Tongue ties may have an impact on breastfeeding, eating, and speech. Lip tie is a similar condition involving the band of tissue that connects the. Baby Balance Method plays an important role in pre and post revision of lip and tongue ties. BBM balance tissues in the face, mouth, neck, and spinal cord by helping regulate the brain and spinal cord before and after a tongue tie revision. Whether breast or bottle-fed, babies' oral structures are important

Adult tongue-tie surgery changed Michelle's life. Tongue function and its role in dental health is a hot topic at the moment. Infant tongue-tie and its impact on dental, breathing, and sleep health have seen a recent spike in attention. The symptoms of an undiagnosed tongue tie can link to mouth breathing, poor sleep, sleep apnea, neck pain. CranioSacral Therapy can help these underlying restrictions in the body that is keeping your baby from getting better and more efficient at eating, even after a clip or a laser has been done. Torticollis, a consistent head tilt that can lead to a flat spot on the baby's developing skull-is also common in tongue-tie babies but can also be the.

Tongue tie surgery is delayed and the tongue is in the position adjacent to the base of the mouth after tongue tie operation, speech disorder and difficulty in some words may persist for months. Children with tongue tie find it difficult to say the letters d, n, l, r, t, z ği in which the tongue needs to be touched by the upper teeth and. Tongue tie - snip vs laser: DS is 3 weeks old and diagnosed with minor tongue tie. I'd love to hear from you if you have had your baby snipped or lasered to correct it and also how baby was 24-48 hours afterwards. - BabyCenter Australi

A baby who is older or who has a tongue-tie that is thick, may need to be referred to an appropriate specialist. Tongue-tie release. Babies should have had Vitamin K at birth (or at least 2 oral doses) before the tongue-tie release is considered. It is preferable for the tongue-tie to be released prior to a feed The tongue then moves in a wave-like motion which stimulates the breast to release its milk and flow to the baby. Tongue-tie can make it hard for the baby to do these things and can contribute to: Compressed or pinched nipples, nipple damage, soreness, and vasospasm pain. Increased risk of nipple and breast infections After tongue tie release, you will often see a diamond shape underneath baby's tongue. After a day or two, this will usually become a small white or yellowish ulcer, which is part of normal healing and nothing to be concerned about If your baby is having problems latching during breastfeeding or isn't able to fully stick out their tongue, then they may have a condition called ankyloglossia, or more commonly known as tongue-tie. Tongue-tie is when there is an abundance of tissue between the lower part of the tongue and the lower part of the mouth, says Dr. Phil Boucher, MD, a board-certified pediatrician in private.

Recovery After Tongue Tie Surgery. Recovery after the surgery depends on the kind of tongue-tie your child has and what type of procedure was expected to address it. A few techniques may have a longer healing time, prompting a further deferral in breastfeeding. Or then again, your baby may find it simpler to breastfeed immediately after the. Q4 - Did you receive follow-up feeding support? The NICE guidance for treatment of ankyloglossia emphasises the importance of support by referring to a study which found that 95% (19/20) of babies who had support from a lactation consultant had improved breastfeeding 48 hours after tongue- tie division, compared with 5% (1/20) of babies in the control group (p < 0.001) The Tongue-Tie Procedure (frenulotomy) Your baby will be swaddled and whilst an adult holds the baby's head still, an excision will be made between the salivary glands and the tongue to release the tongue from the floor of the mouth. The practitioner will ensure that there is nil further frenulum that may cause further issues and further. In some cases, a tongue-tie may prevent the infant's tongue from sticking out past their gums. According to Very Well Family, this is a more common condition than some may think, affecting approximately 5% of newborns. It is commonly diagnosed after the baby is born at the hospital, especially if the mother tries breastfeeding right away Before the release the baby usually had to drink in a different and compensating way for a long time. The baby already drank the amniotic fluid in the womb with a tongue tie. Sometimes a baby has a lot of tension in the jaws, the baby seems to bite the breast or bottle

How Common Is Tongue Tie? An estimated 4-11% of infants have a tongue tie, however the condition is commonly misdiagnosed, so this number could be higher.Interestingly, tongue tie is more common in boys. A tongue tie is often, but not always, accompanied by a lip tie, a condition where the piece of muscleless tissue connecting the upper lip to the upper gum restricts the mouth's mobility. In some cases, movement restrictions caused by tongue-tie and lip tether can result in difficulty with breastfeeding. In rarer cases, they may affect dental health or speech later in childhood Tongue-tie can be hard to spot. In fact, it might only be diagnosed when your baby starts experiencing feeding issues. If your baby is having difficulty opening their mouth widely 1, sticking their tongue out, or moving it from side to side, it's possible that tongue-tie is the cause.Some babies have a heart-shaped appearance on the tip of their tongue 1 which could also indicate tongue-tie Tongue-tie surgery, aka a frenotomy, is when part of the frenulum on a baby - the string like membrane under the tongue - is either cut or lasered to release a tongue tie. Tongue tie. Tongue-tie, also known as ankyloglossia, is a condition some babies are born with that limits their tongue movements. To do its job well, your tongue needs to be able to reach almost every part of.

Video: Help! Baby refusing to feed after tongue tie snip

However tongue tie may cause a child to have poor attachment. The baby may feed only from the nipple, rather than putting the whole breast in their mouth. This can lead to nipple damage. Baby may be snacking by feeding often. This may lead to poor weight gain, nipple damage, mastitis (due to breast not draining) and baby being unsettled Around 5-10% of babies are born with tongue-tie. Tongue-tie can cause problems with breastfeeding in 2-5% of babies with the condition. Some signs of a tongue-tie include your baby having difficulty latching and staying latched during breastfeeding, becoming frustrated when feeding, taking a very long time to feed or having low weight gains

How to know if your baby needs a tongue tie release

So there I was, then, a few weeks later, about 20 weeks before the procedure, back in her office, getting my first set of tongue tie exercises. As well as my personal favorites, 'Monkey', 'Puffer Fish' and 'Waggle Flap', there was a series of breathing exercises, designed to encourage mouth breathing and diaphragm strength After tongue tie laser surgery, you'll need to gently stretch your child's lips and tongue so the frenulum doesn't reattach. Our pediatric dentists will give you instructions on how to do this and answer any questions you may have about how to care for your child after tongue tie release The procedure of revising a tongue tie is called a frenotomy. Is a simple procedure that releases of the membrane (lingual frenulum) from the floor of the mouth (tongue tie) or from the upper lip to the upper gum (lip tie). It is a quick procedure that does NOT require your baby to be put to sleep. Treatment of tongue ties can be performed by.

Not all babies with tongue tie struggle with feeding problems, even if easily visible it may be stretchy enough to allow the baby to feed. Similarly not all problems are tongue tie, there are other factors that can hinder a baby's ability to suck and swallow in an organised fashion (which is why it's important to see someone thoroughly trained in oral assessment) When there is a medical need, you can seek treatment for tongue tie on the NHS. For babies, a midwife, doctor, or lactation consultant will be able to help you organise a tongue tie division if it's needed. Tongue tie in toddlers and adults can also be treated for free on the NHS if it is causing health problems The Association of Tongue-tie Practitioners (ATP) was set up in 2012 by a group of tongue-tie practitioners from the NHS and independent sectors with the aims of: Increasing awareness about the effects of tongue-tie on babies especially with regard to both breast and bottle feeding Is tongue tie release necessary? A tongue-tie surgery may or may not be necessary, and this depends on the extent of the tongue-tie and other complications. A tongue-tie surgery helps the infant latch on to the mother's breasts naturally. Doctors had been performing the surgeries right away after the condition is detected in infants

At Best For Baby, the goal is to optimize your baby's health from the very beginning to give them, and the whole family, the very best start. Moving forward, Joanne aims to remain accessible to you as the baby develops, grows, and reaches new milestones. It is important for you to know she is always there for you and your family as part of. Arnica is the remedy that helps people understand the power of homeopathic medicine. It is effective, fast acting and has an immediate effect on bumps, bruises, shocks, head injuries and bleeding. Once you have experienced Arnica or used it for an injured child you will never again be without this little gem on your person.. I recommend Arnica 200C as the most useful potency to have on hand

sucking. Tongue-tied babies often develop adaptations to cope with their restricted tongue function and these adaptations can continue to cause sucking issues even after the tongue-tie is released. Gentle bodywork can help your baby to release these adaptations and learn to suck effectively. Examples o Advice. Our 3 week old baby had tongue tie and lip tie release this monday. He had latching problems in BF so was mostly bottlefed (pumped and some formula) before the release. After the release he has been really fussy. He cries whenever he wakes up and also cries during feeding. We need to calm him down every time How To Improve Baby's Latch After A Tongue Tie Frenectomy Posted on 20 April 2016 If your little one was born tongue-tied, within a few hours to a few days after birth you probably were advised to have it clipped. Tongue-tied is the slang term used to describe a condition in which the web of skin that holds a human's tongue to the bottom of. Hello, so my sister has a two month old baby boy and they have just found out that he has a tongue tie. He is unsettled all day, struggling to sleep unless on her chest, and is hysterical if you put him down. They are really struggling and I wondered if anyone has experience We went back to see Dr. Murphy and he said that her tongue had healed in a way that indicated that he had to re-release her tongue. Heart breaking. We had to do the clipping again. We did, it was quick, and Lily latched right on. Nursing became easier after this, although we did have to go through a relearning process again

Consequences of Untreated Tongue Tie - Tongue Ti

Giraffeski Tue 09-Apr-13 15:50:19. My DD2 had her posterior tongue tie divided yesterday. She's 13 weeks and has learned a very shallow latch where she basically just chomps on my nipple. I'm now struggling to get her to open her mouth wide enough- not sure how as the usual 'nipple to nose' that works with tiny babies isn't having any effect A tongue tie is like a snag in a piece of silk - although it may only be one small thread, it creates ripples of tightness through the whole garment. If we want to help a tongue tie baby breastfeed well, we need to address the underlying tension. That's where Craniosacral therapy comes in and changing environments oftenhelps to keep a fussy baby happy.Lip swelling is normal after a lip release, so consider small frozen milk chips for comfort.Swelling may last 3-4 days. You may use Tylenol, Ibuprofen (if 6 months of age or older), other measures to help with pain control, such as a non-numbing teething gel like Hyland's Teethin Care of the Breastfed Baby after Tongue-Tie Release (Frenectomy) Pain relief Most babies experience only minimal discomfort after the procedure, and breast-feeding provides natural pain relief. If however, your baby seems uncomfortable Tylenol (acetaminophen) can be given to help with the discomfort. Please spea Oral issues like tongue and lip ties develop in the womb as a result of a gene mutation passed on as a dominant trait. A baby born with a tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, will have an overly short or.

posterior tongue tie ~ how should they be after snip

Reid N, Rajput N. Acute feed refusal followed by Staphylococcus aureus wound infection after tongue-tie release. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2014;50:1030-1031. 17 What a Tongue Tie Dentist Can and Can't Do. Many parents come to us shortly after their baby has been diagnosed with tongue tie or lip tie, imagining that our practice is a one-stop shop for resolving breastfeeding problems. The truth is that we have an important part to play, but, nonetheless, a limited one. A tongue tie dentist can

Pain Relief After Tongue And Lip Tie Surger

Hospital staff decided clipping the anterior tongue tie was the best way to get her to nurse and gain weight, but wanted to leave the posterior tongue tie to see if it continued to affected her. After having the anterior tongue tie revision, Isabel nursed perfectly on the right side, but had great difficulty nursing on the left Tongue-tie. Tongue-tie is where 'the strip of skin connecting the baby's tongue to the floor of their mouth is shorter than usual,' according to NHS England. This can result in the tongue not pushing the nipple correctly up to the roof of the mouth. Tongue-ties are fairly common and do not always need to be cut

The unsettled baby: Crying out for an sublingual mucocele after laser frenotomy in a neonate with tongue-tie and to investigate major complications reported after tongue-tie release in. Just because a mother managed to breastfeed her baby doesn't mean that tongue tie isn't an issue. Many times, a nurse or lactation consultant will notice a tongue tie but not recommend a release because the breastfed baby is able to gain weight. Unfortunately, issues like mastitis or low milk supply can still occur The procedure to release the tongue-tie itself, called frenotomy, however, is fairly straightforward. It is usually done by pediatric otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat specialists), oral surgeons, or dentists in their offices. Babies can breastfeed immediately after the tongue-tie release. If you are having persistent breastfeeding.

Tongue-tie in babies NC

Knox I. Tongue Tie and Frenotomy in the Breastfeeding Newborn. NeoReviews 2010; 11 (9):e513. Wallace H, Clarke S. Tongue tie division in infants with breast feeding difficulties. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Mar 6; In press as of 4/13/06. Amir LH, James JP, Beatty J. Review of tongue-tie release at a tertiary maternity hospital. J. Tongue-tie. Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is a condition in which an unusually short, thick or tight band of tissue (lingual frenulum) tethers the bottom of the tongue's tip to the floor of the mouth. If necessary, tongue-tie can be treated with a surgical cut to release the frenulum (frenotomy). If additional repair is needed or the lingual. Benefits to Expect after Tongue Tie/Lip Tie Laser Surgery Tongue tie and lip tie laser surgery is a relatively simple, quick, and painless procedure. Your baby can nurse as soon as he/she desires to do so after the surgery, however, it may take 30-45 minutes for any numbing medication to wear off

Ultimately, after the release of the frenulum improvements (in terms of breastfeeding) do not come almost immediately. Especially, if your toddler or baby had a tongue-tie release. Be patient as your baby's body finds a good adaptation ability and compensation from the muscles Sometimes, tongue tie surgery is necessary. And, if so, pre-habilitation is considered a best practice method to insure optimal results. Pre-habilitation gives the doctor better tissue to work with. It also makes it easier to see inside the baby's mouth. Before the surgery, it's important to achieve alignment of the head. Tongue tie: 5 days post-procedure. The narrowing diamond shape is beginning to form. Notice the fingers at the top of the wound pushing in, then up. Tongue tie: 11 days post-procedure. Tongue tie: 2 weeks post-procedure. Notice how the diamond is beginning to narrow in from the sides. This is the desired progression The baby just had a tongue tie release. The mother is doing compressions appropriately. She waits to see if the baby is drinking or not (pause in the chin). If the baby is not drinking, she compresses, holds the compression until the baby stops sucking or stops drinking and then releases Tongue tie and lip tie can make it hard for a baby to form a proper latch, which not only makes it hard for a baby to latch on and get adequate suction, it can cause difficulties for the mother as well. The tongue is also an important influence on the development of a child's jaws This is known as 'tongue-tie'. Tongue-tie affects 5% to 10% of babies. It is slightly more common in boys than in girls. Tongue-tie may restrict the movement of your baby's tongue and cause feeding challenges. But many will not have any feeding difficulties or challenges. Not all babies with tongue-tie need treatment. Tongue tie Tongue-tie.