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DAERA grants 2021

Grants and funding. There is a wide range of grant and subsidy schemes to support local farming, fisheries, rural businesses and communities. The following link will take you to the single national (UK) website that provides details of recipients of CAP subsidy payments. CAP subsidy payments. (external link opens in a new window / tab The Rural Business Development Grant Scheme 2021 is one of a number being delivered under DAERA's Tackling Rural Poverty and Social Isolation (TRPSI) initiative and provides a capital grant of 50% up to a value of £4,999 for rural micro businesses to bring about improvements towards recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic, as well as enhancing.

Grants and funding - DAER

Minister launches £1million Rural Business Development

4. Discuss your project proposal with a relevant member of DAERA staff. Contact details can be provided by Grant Team staff who can be contacted by email on efgrants@daera-ni.gov.uk. 5. Complete the EF Challenge Competition 2021/22 Application Form Business Case, using the EF Guidance Notes Part 2 for reference. 6 Fencing grants for farmers 2021 Northern Ireland. DAERA forestry grants. Almost all woodlands in Northern Ireland are planted with some form of grant assistance. The Forest Service encourages the creation of new woodlands and the management of existing woodlands by providing grant aid towards the cost of the work The capital only grants are available up to a maximum grant of £4,999 (up to 50% of the total costs of the project). This scheme is now open and will be accepting applications from Thursday 1 July 2021 and will close on Friday 30 July 2021 at 12 noon DAERA Environment Fund offers several funding schemes: 1) The Multi-year Strategic Environment Fund funds projects which aims to deliver measurable key environmental outcomes at a Northern Ireland wide scale, sub-regional scale, river catchment scale, on or related to a designated site, or on EMFG (Environment, Marine and Fisheries Group) owned.

Rural Affairs Minister Edwin Poots MLA has visited two rural businesses which have received just under £50,000 in support from DAERA's Rural Micro Business Growth Scheme and the Rural Business Investment Scheme. On a solar farm near Cookstown, the Minister met Samuel Knox and David Woodend, Directors of Kann O&M Ltd, which is based outside Broughshane, [ DAERA Minister, Edwin Poots MLA, has announced that Tranche 5 of the Wider Level of the Environmental Farming Scheme (EFS) will open for applications on 16 August 2021. EFS Wider Level applies to land outside areas of environmental designation and as such will be available to most farmers in Northern Ireland Previous grants received from schemes using Section 3.1 of the Temporary Framework for COVID-19 and any grants made within the last three fiscal years (current plus the two previous) subject to agricultural de minimis rules under Regulation EU 1408/2013 will be deducted from this maximum support cap as a matter of policy

Current Grants. Online applications for the 2021-2022 Grant Aid Programme is now closed. Essential Information (before you apply) Prior to completing an online grant aid application, it is essential that you read and familiarise yourself with the Grant Aid Guidance Document 2021 All applications to the Small Woodland Grant Scheme must be made using the online system before 30 September 2021. Early applications are encouraged and can be made at anytime following the schemes opening today. grants.forestservice@daera-ni.gov.uk. Receive quality journalism wherever you are, on any device. Keep up to date from the. The scheme is funded by DAERA and will be administered by Live Here Love Here. The public Call for Evidence opens on 28th June 2021 and will run for a 14 week period until 5pm on 1st October 2021. The Tackling Marine Litter Grants Scheme opens for applications on 30th June 2021. Visit the Keep Northern Ireland Beautiful website

Applications must be made by 10pm on 30 September 2021 via Daera's online service. Establishment costs are set at £2,925/ha and divided, with 80% paid in year one and the remaining 20% in year. DAERA Rural Micro Capital Grant Scheme 2020 (United Kingdom) This Scheme is funded under the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs Tackling Rural Poverty and Social Isolation Programme. The key aim of this Programme is to assist in tackling poverty and social isolation within rural communities across Northern Ireland The grants available are from £5,000 to £10,000. Before applying to the Aughrim Programme, we recommend you to: Aughrim Programme Guidelines 2021. Read more about our previous projects. Application deadlines 2021 are: Monday 5 April. Monday 5 July. Monday 4 October. Note that all deadlines are by 12 noon on the dates above. Workshops for. 20/04/2021. If you come across an oil spill, the Northern Ireland Environment Agency advices that you do not attempt to clean it up yourself. Please report pollution to the NIEA incident hotline on 0800 807060 or email emergency-pollution@daera-ni.gov.uk and we will investigate

As is the case with Water Capital grants, farmers will be able to apply for a standalone 2-year Air Quality grant agreement or incorporate Air Quality options into a full Mid- Tier application. For the 2021 Scheme Year, the current cap on standalone capital grant agreements will be raised from £10,000 to £20,000 SMALL WOODLAND GRANT SCHEME Applications Close 30th September 2021 Fixed area based payment for new native woodlands of 0.2 hectares or larger Simple online scheme Find out more at:.. Grant aid of £500-£4,999 for projects costing up to £20,000 for micro enterprises based in a rural area . The Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) has launched the Rural Business Development Grant Scheme 2021.. The scheme aims to provide grant funding to rural micro businesses to help with their sustainability and development, as well as assisting recovery from. Grants worth up to £250k for Northern Ireland Farmers 22.07.21. The Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) has launched tier two of the Farm Business Improvement Scheme and is accepting expressions of interest until 13 th August 2021. Only businesses that submit an expression of interest will be eligible to submit a.

Marine Litter Capital Grants 2021 Application Guidance Notes Thank you to the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs involving DAERA, ten Local Councils, Northern Ireland Housing Executive and Keep Northern Ireland Grants are available across the whole of Northern Ireland and are not restricted to coastal areas FE Grants 2021/2022 Applications for 2021/2022 are now open: (DAERA) has responsibility for food, farming, environmental, fisheries, forestry and sustainability policy and the development of the rural sector in Northern Ireland..

National Grants: Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA

  1. This grant scheme is part of the Tackling Rural Poverty and Social Isolation (TRPSI) Programme funded by the Department for Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA). It will close at 12 noon on 30th July 2021 and offers capital grants of up to £4,999
  2. Direct Payments comprise BPS payments and Young Farmers' payments. The euro / sterling conversion rate used to calculate the entitlement values for 2021 is €1 = £0.89092. The percentage increase to entitlements to account for removal of Greening Payments is 43.647186%. The Entitlement Register is now open and can be viewed via DAERA Online.
  3. 22/06/2021 . DAERA Minister Edwin Poots MLA today met pupils from St. Brigid's P.S Mayogall with their imaginative portrait of him which was part of their recently famous artwork of Executive Ministers. Department of Finance Education Authority Mid-Ulster Mail Mid Ulster District Council Tyrone Courier Derry Pos
  4. g Incentive pilot guidance page, and removal of link to Rural payments: add land by email for 2021 guidance page. 7 April 2021
  5. There are four types of monetary awards: Cromar, Alastrean, Douneside and Lady MacRobert. NB Alastrean grants are from £1,000 and £10,000. Allen and Overy: Belfast Grants (Closing Date 5pm, 21 May 2021) A fund of £40,000 for charities that promote access to justice, or which support and develop education or employment projects in NI
Northern Ireland drops EU greening rules from 2021

Funding for Schools Science Projects (UK) 8th July 2021. UK primary or secondary school teachers can apply for grants of up to £3,000 to buy equipment to run STEM investigation projects for students aged between 5 and 18. The funding is being made available through the Royal Society's Partnership grants scheme Capital grants are available to existing micro enterprises based in a rural area to support them to recover, sustain or grow through DAERA's Tackling Rural Poverty and Social Isolation Programme. For more info & to apply: https://bit.ly/3h8Nih8 Deadline is 30th July 2021

Apply now for Marine Litter Capital Grants 2021 United

Application for Student Support for people entering Further Education in 2021/22 (including living expenses grant and any supplementary grants). What length is the course? 1 year 2 years 3 years (Please tick) Which year of the course are you studying in 2021/22 (i.e., 1st, 2nd, 3rd)? Will you be repeating any part of the course in 2021/22 Green Business Grants can be used for capital works and purchases to improve the energy efficiency of buildings and business operations. Applications are now being accepted until June 25 2021. You will be able to apply for up to £15,000 per business to pay for 50-80 per cent of the eligible capital costs Rural Business Grants of up to £4,999. The TRPSI Rural Business Development Grant Scheme opens for applications on Thursday 01 July 2021 and will close at 12noon on Friday 30 July 2021. This scheme aims to support the sustainability, recovery and development of existing micro businesses located in rural areas by providing a small capital grant.

DAERA forestry grants Department of Agriculture

Daera to increase funding for NI farm business grants. An extra £400,000 will be added to the allocation budget of a multimillion-pound farm business grant scheme in Northern Ireland. The. The capital grants are capped at £4,999 at a match-funding rate of up to 50% from DAERA. The minimum grant award is £500. Applications will close at 12 noon on Friday 30 July 2021 Northern Ireland farm machinery grants scheme doubling to £15m. Funding to help farmers in Northern Ireland buy new equipment and machinery will increase from £7.5m to £15m, the Department of. NEW For 2021/22 coming in June. Exciting News - For the first time in many years, we have two grants to chose from this summer to plant your land winter 2021/22. Small Woodland Grant Scheme will be released for its second season for native woodlands (SWGS) Minimum area 0.2 ha; Open to farmers and non-farmers (must have DAERA business ID number

Capital grants up to a maximum of 50% grant rate are available to existing micro-enterprises based in a rural area to support them to recover, sustain or grow through DAERA's Tackling Rural Poverty and Social Isolation (TRPSI) Programme. The scheme is open for applications between Thursday 1 July 2021 and 12noon on Friday 30 July 2021 GrantStation —Updating a comprehensive list of organizations providing COVID-19 emergency assistance for nonprofits, individuals, and small businesses all over the globe. Candid. —Compiling a list of more than 200 emergency financial resources broken down geographically for individuals, nonprofits, and small businesses Marine Litter Capital Grants 27 July 2021 The Live Here Love Here Marine Litter Capital Grants are being provided by the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs through the Live Here Love Here collaborative partnership, involving DAERA, ten Local Councils, Northern Ireland Housing Executive and Keep Northern Ireland Beautiful. Please join the Join USDA, DAFM and DAERA for a webinar on Tuesday, June 22 at 10am EDT | 3pm BST/IST to learn more! If you need a reasonable accommodation to participate in this meeting, please contact Davida Tengey, Program Specialist, at davida.tengey@usda.gov (link sends e-mail) or (202) 486-2704 no later than June 17, 2021

Agriculture 2021 Program Area Priorities DAFM/DAERA Deadline 2021 by 17.00 hrs (IST) AFRI Deadline 2021 Animal Breeding and Functional Annotation of Genomes April 8, 2021 May 6, 2021 Animal Nutrition, Growth, and Lactation April 8, 2021 May 6, 2021 Diseases of Agricultural Animals April 8, 2021 May 6, 2021 20/04/2021. If you come across an oil spill, the Northern Ireland Environment Agency advices that you do not attempt to clean it up yourself. Please report pollution to the NIEA incident hotline on 0800 807060 or email emergency-pollution@daera-ni.gov.uk and we will investigate 27/07/2021. Last Call for Rural Business Development Grant Applications! On behalf of the Council, I would like to thank DAERA for the £62k funding made available for these grants as well as absorbing the staff costs. Applications close at 12pm on 30 July 2021 Capital grants are available to existing micro enterprises based in a rural area to support them to recover, sustain or grow through DAERA's Tackling Rural Poverty and Social Isolation Programme. For more info & to apply: https://bit.ly/3h8Nih8 Deadline is 30th July 2021. In Strabane Business Support Derry Straban Mid and East Antrim Borough Council is welcoming applications for Rural Business Grants of up to almost £5,000. The scheme is open for applications between 1 July 2021 and 30 July 2021 with Grant.

The Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) has announced that the 2019 Rural Micro Capital Grant Scheme is now open for applications. Micro Capital grants of between £200 and £1,500 are available to rural community-led, voluntary organisations for projects tackling issues of local poverty and/or social isolation DAERA Application Form/Booklet. The Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) has responsibility for food, farming, environmental, fisheries, forestry and sustainability policy and the development of the rural sector in Northern Ireland. The Department's College of Agriculture, Food and Rural Enterprise (CAFRE) delivers. Grants and Funding. We operate a range of grant and funding scheme throughout the year. This section provides information and guidance on those schemes, when to apply and when schemes close. Grants Information Session Webinar. How to make a successful application. How to make a successful claim

Ballymena Borough Chamber of Commerce and Industry

1,135 Followers, 75 Following, 178 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from DAERA (@daera.ni DFC Minster and DAERA Officials meet community champions. 1 Mar 2021. Today (1st March 2021) Communities Minster Deirdre Hargey, Paul Donnelly, Director of Rural Affairs Division and Gerard Treacy, Head of Branch - Rural Affairs West, joined community organisations to hear the impact of funding from DfC and DEARA in response to coronavirus. DAERA Environment Fund By Anne Broeksma | 2021-07-12T11:36:11+02:00 19 October 2020 | The Environment Fund is administered by the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs to support projects which will help deliver key environmental outcomes across Northern Ireland Why we are consulting. This consultation exercise is an opportunity for you to share your views. We are interested in your feedback on whether or not the proposed Rural Policy Framework for Northern Ireland is a relevant and appropriate means of creating a sustainable rural community where people want to live, work and be active

09 March 2021 @ 12:00) acknowledgements will issue automatically through the DAFM Research Online Portal. The evaluation of proposals is scheduled for Q2 -Q3 2021, contract negotiations in Q3 2021, with a view to awarding funding in Q4 2021. Note post-submission timescales are indicative July 05, 2021 / Martin Quinn The Live Here Love Here Marine Litter Capital Grants are being provided by the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs through the Live Here Love Here collaborative partnership, involving DAERA, ten Local Councils, Northern Ireland Housing Executive and Keep Northern Ireland Beautiful JULY 2021 . DAERA consultation on Rural Policy Framework DAERA opened its consultation on its Rural Policy Framework on 7th July. The Rural Policy Framework will replace the Priority 6 element of the EU funded NI Rural Development Programme (NIRDP) 2014-2020 which was largely distributed by Local Action Groups (LAGs) using the LEADER approach (DAERA) has announced that the 2018 Rural Micro Capital Grant Scheme is now open for applications. Micro Capital grants of between £200 and £1,500 are available to rural community-led, voluntary organisations for projects tackling issues of local poverty and / or social isolation. The total project cost must not exceed £3,000

Poots announces opening of £2million environment - DAER

  1. CLP grants several Conservation Team Awards to early-career researchers who promote pro-conservation attitudes and deliver tangible results to better manage the natural world. R. E. Train Education for Nature Program - EF
  2. Northern Ireland's network of DAERA Direct offices will open to the public again from Monday (June 7). The 12 local offices, which are run by the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA), offer advice to farmers such as regarding herd and flock numbers, scheme applications, grants, etc
  3. istered by CWSAN, The DAERA Micro Capital grants are soon opening to those groups within Rural areas of Mid Ulster. Grants will improve the lives of rural communities, and in particular the wellbeing of isolated individuals and will help rural community-led, voluntary groups to address local issues of access poverty, financial poverty and social isolation by focusing on one of the.
  4. UFU president meets newly appointed DAERA Minister. Friday, 12 February, 2021. Ulster Farmers' Union (UFU) president Victor Chestnutt met with the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) acting Minister Gordon Lyons, to discuss the key issues that are facing farmers and require urgent attention

Video: Grants worth up to £250k on offer as NI farm scheme opens

The EEA (European Economic Area) and Norway Grants came about in 1994 as a result of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway's participation in the EU Internal Market. Endangered Landscapes Programme By Filippo Zibordi | 2021-07-01T15:16:14+02:00 27 May 2020 Carrickfergus Now. 2,909 likes · 480 talking about this. Promote your event business for free at CarrickfergusNI FREE lets promote this town together for the people of the tow availability, as well as new DAERA requirements for NI partners. Applicants in these institutions must contact the Chief Scientific Advisers Office prior to 29 January 2021 in order to confirm eligibility and DAERA [s potential interest in funding the research proposed Affairs (DAERA). In this booklet you will find information on the financial help that DAERA has put in place for full-time further education students for the academic year 2021/22. It applies to students participating in courses between 1 September 2021 and 31 August 2022. You can apply for a Further Education Grant from April 2021 onwards

Local Economy | Ballymena Chamber

Derry City & Strabane - Rural Business Grant

As part of the Department's response to COVID-19 the Heritage Recovery Fund offered grants to help heritage individuals, organisations or businesses impacted by COVID-19 cover operating costs, assess and adapt their business models, and become financially viable up to 31 March 2021. 50 organisations and 41 individuals received grants 30 July 2021. Link to Sustainable Farming Incentive pilot guidance page, and removal of link to Rural payments: add land by email for 2021 guidance page This is the scheme guidance for the 2021 Single Application Form. IACS (1a) How to complete your SAF 2021 (PDF, Size: 890.9 kB) Guidance on how to complete your Single Application Form. IACS (2) 2021 - Blank base form (PDF, Size: 109.6 kB) IACS Base Form. IACS (3) 2021 - Permanent land (PDF, Size: 59.7 kB

U.S.-Ireland Research and Development Partnership ..

  1. imum of £25,000 in any one year
  2. Funding for Schools Science Projects (UK) 8th July 2021. UK primary or secondary school teachers can apply for grants of up to £3,000 to buy equipment to run STEM investigation projects for students aged between 5 and 18. The funding is being made available through the Royal Society's Partnership grants scheme
  3. To apply for any of the Causeway Coast and Glens Borough Councils grants please apply online here. Our Community grants are open to not for profit, constituted groups to deliver a wide range of activities and projects that benefit the Causeway Coast and Glens Borough Council Area.. Our Enterprise Fund is open to local businesses within their first two years, to help address barriers to growth.
  4. Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA). In this booklet you will find information on the financial help that DAERA has put in place for part-time further education students for the academic year 2021/22. It applies to students participating in eligible courses between 1 September 2021 and 31 August 2022 (Qualifyin
  5. JUNE 2021 Scheme Funder Note Date Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA): Environment Fund Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) Closing Date (Noon) 1 Jun 2021 Scot
  6. DAERA has launched a new Rural Social Economy Investment Scheme. November 10, 2020 / Anita Doonan. This is a pilot scheme which will provide grants of between £25,000 and £50,000 (at 80%) to emerging and established rural social enterprises (trading for at least 12 months) in Northern Ireland to enable them to increase their capacity.

Grants For Rural Businesse

open in early July 2021 for a call of one month duration, with a budget in the region of £125,000 with an additional technical assistance payment to council at 10% (£12,500). Indicative Timeline June 2021 DAERA approval for Programme and Contract for Funding issued June 2021 Revision of Programme documentation (Application Form, Scorin Over £70 million in top up grants begins issuing to thousands of businesses. by Connor Doherty | May 27, 2021 | COVID-19. £72.3 million will begin issuing from today in top up grants to businesses which were allowed to.. Home Last few days to submit 2021 Single Application With only a few days remaining to the 17 May deadline for submitting the 2021 Single Application, Agriculture Minister, Edwin Poots MLA is urging farmers who have not yet taken any action, to act now and submit their Single Application without delay Northern Ireland Environment Link is the forum and networking body for organisations interested in the environment of Northern Ireland

Farm Business Improvement Scheme - DAER

Overview. This application is for eligible potato growers to provide documentary evidence to demonstrate the scale of loss incurred. The maximum amount of Agricultural Commodities (Coronavirus) (Income Support) paid to a farm business for 2020 and 2021 combined will be £210,124 Projects for DAERA EVIDENCE AND INNOVATION outreach activities scientific papers countries million of External research grants and contracts Over the past years Over the past years AFBI have secured AFBI has delivered AFBI works with partners across AFBI has delivered 35 556 1881 £45 95 44,000 in support of Health Authories COVID-1 T ests AFBI. Universal Credit standard allowance increasing by £1,040 for the 2021 tax year (6 April 2020 - 5 April 2021). Self-assessment income tax payments for the self -employed initially due by 31 July 2020 can be deferred to 31 January 2021. Interest rate reduced to 0.1% from March 2020 IRC259592 - Industrial Fish Farm Operative River Bush Salmon Station Grade 3. Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) Closing Date:13/08/2021 12:00:0 Created on: Wednesday, 14 July 2021. Posted in: News The Live Here Love Here Marine Litter Capital Grants are being provided by the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs through the Live Here Love Here collaborative partnership, involving DAERA, ten Local Councils, Northern Ireland Housing Executive and Keep Northern Ireland.

Apply now for Marine Litter Capital Grants 2021 - UK

9 March 2021. Added link to press release about £5 million boost for local authorities to tackle air pollution. 5 March 2021. Removed details of air quality grants application process as it now. Posted on April 19, 2021 May 3, 2021 by petebkr Mr Patsy McGlone (Mid Ulster): To ask the Minister of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs what progress has there been on creating a new sanction in legislation to make the polluter pay to remediate or remove illegally deposited waste

01 July, 2021 01:00 Edwin Poots pictured with Helen Tomb, Live Here Love Here manager and Méabh and Rónán Hook from Mill Strand Integrated Primary. Picture by Aaron McCracken/ DAERA The grant scheme will operate under the Area Based Scheme processes and all applicants require a DAERA Business ID to apply. All applications for the new Small Woodland Grant Scheme must be submitted using the online system by 11pm on Sunday 28 February 2021. The Scheme is planned to re-open in summer 2021 The scheme is funded by DAERA and will be administered by Live Here Love Here. The public Call for Evidence opened on 28 June 2021 and will run for a 14 week period until 5 pm on 1st October 2021. The Tackling Marine Litter Grants Scheme opened for applications on 30 June 2021 Apply Online for September 2021/22. Free School Meals / School Uniform / Physical Education Clothing applications for 2021/22 school year can now be made online by clicking the link below. Parents/Guardians who have a child/children already entitled to free school meals during the 2020/21 school year also need to apply for these children (as. For Students entering Full-time Further Education in 2020/2021 (including living expenses grant and any supplementary grants). Copies of this application form and information on Student Support arrangements for students attending the College of Agriculture, Food and Rural Enterprise (CAFRE) ar

DAERA Farm Business Improvement Scheme Capital Tier 2

DAERA Minister Publishes Business Plan 2021-22. The Minister for Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs, Edwin Poots, has launched his Department's Business Plan 2021-2022, following a challenging 2020. The 2021-2022 plan has a sharp focus on recovery following the global pandemic, the challenges presented by EU Exit and the urgency. 2021 Department of Agriculture, Environment & Rural Affairs (DAERA) Completed Application Forms must be submitted to HRConnect no later than 12 noon (UK time) on Friday 7th May 2021 Please retain a copy of this booklet for your reference throughout the selection process. -SS 1.18 The DAERA Rural Social Economy Investment Scheme is a pilot Scheme to emerging and established rural social enterprises in Northern Ireland to enable them to increase their capacity, potential profitability and sustainability whilst supporting those who live in rural areas.. The focus of this call is on rural social enterprise 2021 Department of Agriculture, Environment & Rural Affairs (DAERA) Completed Application Forms must be submitted to HRConnect no later than 12 noon (UK time) on Friday 7th May 2021 Please retain a copy of this booklet for your reference throughout the selection process. RE-SS 1.18

Environment Fund 2019-22 - DAER

SL1 Domestic Energy Efficiency Grants (Amendment) Regulations 2021 SR 2021/67 The Universal Credit (Extension of Coronavirus Measures) Regulations (NI) 2021 • Dr Denis McMahon, DAERA • Mr Robert Huey, DAERA • Mr Mark Livingstone, DAERA Public from 12:15 PM (2 mins Environment Minister Edwin Poots today announced the allocation of an additional £645,000 of funding to environmental projects acros Key facts. In the year ending March 2020, an estimated 2.3 million adults aged 16 to 74 years experienced domestic abuse in the last year (1.6 million women and 757,000 men). The cumulative effect.